Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 - June 8, 1845) is the seventh president of the United States. He was elected for two terms from 1829 to 1837.|
First President born in a wooden hut, Jackson is a hero of the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom, an Indian fighter and a lawyer in his state, Tennessee. Neither particularly intelligent nor taught he became a symbol of his time because he accurately reflected the views of the U.S. population. He doesn’t owe his position to anyone and hates politicians… he replaces them by his own friends. It was under his presidency that the political party system as it exists until today really saw the light of day.
American Andrew Jackson was born March 15, 1767 at Waxshaws, at the frontier of the current States of North and South Carolina. He is the son of poor Irish immigrants.
His father, forced to emigrate in 1765, with his wife and two son, came to settle in the town of Waxhawsw near Cambden, in South Carolina, and died shortly after the birth of his third son, Andrew.
Designed by his mother at the church, Andrew Jackson came out of college at 15 in 1782, to enlist in the armed forces of independence, with his two brothers who perished in this campaign; himself was seriously wounded and taken prisoner by the English.
He took part in the war of the American Revolution as a courier. His violent nature and pride owe him to be wounded in the hand when he was taken prisoner.
Continuing his studies after the expulsion of English, accepted as lawyer at the Bar of Salisbury, North Carolina (1784), then appointed district’s general attorney in Nashville, Tennessee, where he transferred his residence (1788), the magistrate Jackson made his debut in the military commanders, at the head of some militias, against the Indians he pushed away from borders.
When the state of Tennessee was admitted to join the Union, it was the jurist Jackson that the Convention, of which he was a member, commissioned to draft the new Constitution of the State.
Elected representative of the Tennessee at the General Congress (1796), and Senator the following year, he gave his resignation and returned to his home.
Appointed Judge of the Supreme Court and Commander-in-Chief of the militia of his state, he only retained the latter title (1799). Now living in the campaign, he had, for 14 years, devoted himself to the work of the agriculture, when hostilities broke out in 1812 between the USA and England, opening the American national army a career, gave a chance to Jackson, a former magistrate, legislator and farmer, to be the first man of war of the Union or, in the emphatic words adopted by the English, the lion of North America.
Raised to the rank of major general of militias, and charged with driving on the Mississippi in December 1812, an elite corps entirely composed of volunteers, Jackson, resisting the contradictory and unjust orders of an employee of the central government, ended on wining the affection of militiamen.
After the War of 1812 between the USA and the United Kingdom, the pioneers are moving to the territories of the Mississippi Valley recently acquired. Jackson participates in the wars against Indian tribes the Creeks then the Seminole, aimed at forcing the Indians to regroup still further west to allow settlers to move.
His difficult and dangerous campaign against the Creeks (1813) ended with a coup de force which is then in the Annals of the Union military. Jackson is informed that the Creeks, refugees in Florides, possession of Spain, are armed and excited to war by the Spanish governor of Pensacola, in open violation of its neutrality.
Without waiting for permission to ask his government, Jackson enters the Florides. Two English spies he did judge by a martial court, were hanged. The place of Pensacola is carried live force, the Spanish, governor Indians and the English are punished and Jackson withdrew.
In 1814, Jackson commands at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Alabama where 700 Creek Indians were killed when he only lost 49 men. A peace treaty is signed giving Americans access to a territory of nearly 100 000 sq. km.
At the end of the same year, Jackson is in Florida where he is fighting against the Seminole Indians. The agricultural people occupied the north of Florida at the request of Spanish, in order to protect the colony against the USA. They also welcomed fugitive slaves, slaves who fought on their side. Jackson will be appointed military governor of the state in 1819 and the territory will be ceded by Spain in 1821 by the Treaty of Adams-Onís.
Finally, on December 13, 1814, Jackson is in New Orleans, Louisiana to fight against the British in what will be the last battle of the War of 1812. The news of the armistice signed on Christmas Eve 1814 (December 24, by the Treaty of Ghent because they failed to know about it, the battle takes place on January 8, 1815 between 8 000 British soldiers trained and approximately 4 000 strong men from which a large portion are supporters of the pirate Jean Lafitte that makes the law in the Caribbean region. The victory made Jackson a national hero; British losses amounted to 2 036 men while he has lost only 7 men.
On 17 July 1821, Jackson was elected governor of Florida. He retired again in the campaign, and one can see, it is after having spent fourteen years again as a farmer, that he was raised by the votes of his fellow citizens to the Supreme Judicial Council (March 4, 1829).
He went to the presidential election of 1824 and won more popular votes and votes of electors than his competitors but he doesn’t have the absolute majority. It is a vote of the House of Representatives that gives the presidency to John Quincy Adams. Jackson represented in 1828 and this time wins the election with a substantial majority. This is the first president elected by universal suffrage, which has just been introduced in many States and his reputation as a man of the people and Indian fighter is not external to this victory. He was also in the freemasonry.
March 4: Investiture of Andrew Jackson as the seventh president of USA. This is the first elected president who is not part of the circle of politicians who participated in the War of Independence and the drafting of the Constitution. It enjoys the support of all the farmers of the West as well as that of urban residents, who appreciate his humble beginnings (he was nicknamed the "friend of the common man"). In his inaugural address he announced that he will do everything necessary to clear the East of the continent of Natives, and occupy their territories.
On May 28th 1830, the Congress votes and Jackson signes the law expulsing all the Natives out of the East Coast states and their presence in the territories to the west of the Mississippi plain.
May 21st 1831: first national convention of the Democratic Party who chooses Jackson as a presidential candidate.
July 10th 1832: Jackson gives a veto to the creation of a central bank.
December 5: Jackson is re-elected for a second term against the Whig Party candidate.
January 29th 1834: Jackson uses for the first time the army to break a strike by workers who built the canal between Washington and Ohio.
In 1836, Jackson gives a new veto to the creation of a central bank. The Federal Reserve will have the monopole on the issuance of currency only in 1913.
The USA are still faced with the rivalry between France and the United Kingdom which hampers trade. He vigorously supported the claim of 25 million, raised by the Government of the USA with the French firm.
The problems will be resolved only around 1836. Jackson, however, managed to negotiate an agreement which, in 1830, allows trade with the British possessions in the Caribbean. In 1837 Jackson recognizes the independence of the Republic of Texas who was under Mexican rule.
Populist, Jackson does not support politicians and institutions that tend to acquire an independent power. He will give another veto to the renewal of the central bank created in 1781 by Hamilton to manage the national debt and strengthen the federal government.
The south, particularly agricultural, did not want high tariffs, unlike the north that put in place its own industry. The crisis is resolved in 1833 by a sharp reduction in tariffs and mark the victory of the individual interest of States on the federal government.
In 1829 with growing population and the discovery of gold on the territories of Cherokees, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act passed by the Congress for the use of these lands. The Supreme Court finds the law unconstitutional, but Jackson refuses to implement the decision. The State of Georgia allocates the Cherokee lands during a lottery and Jackson sends troops to deport Indian beyond the Mississippi. This episode cost the lives of some 4000 Cherokee Indians (25% of the population) during a journey along the track known as the "Trail of Tears".
He introduces the system where the high federal functions are attributed to friends who helped during the election campaign and put pressure on states to broaden the electoral base. Thus, under his chairmanship, the number of citizens participating in political life is multiplied by 7.
At the end of his second term in 1837, Jackson returned to his home in Tennessee. After serving in the army, becoming a hero and after having been president for eight years he said he returned home with "only 80 dollars in his pocket." He died June 8, 1845 and his death is now attributed to lead poisoning as a result of injuries received in 1813.