I.Q. of Famous People

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Hugo Grotius (Huig De Groot)

Born: 1583
Died: 1645
Nationality: Holland
Description: Jurist
IQ: 200
Hugo Grotius (originnaly Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, Delft, April 10, 1583 - Rostock, 28 August 1645)was born in Holland. He was a jurist of the United Provinces (now Netherlands), which laid the foundations of international law Based on natural law. He is part of the forefront of thinkers of legal science and philosophy of the state.

Dutch Protestant Lawyer, he was the adviser to the Dutch East Indies Company. Inspired by Thomas Erastus, he forged a theory of state and the civil power which he introduced with great thoroughness and intellectual force the internal and international joints. His most famous work is “De jure pacis et belli”. It marks the birth of public international law.

He was also a philosopher, Christian apologist, playwright and poet. The dominant feature of this great humanist was ecumenical investigations will that left him no respite. He has not stopped campaigning for a truly humane order and for an open Christianity, purified by a return to its sources.

The Library of the Peace Palace in The Hague keeps the Grotius Collection, which has a large number of books by and about Hugo Grotius. The collection was based on a donation of Martinus Nijhoff of 55 editions of “De jure belli ac pacis libri tres”.

The American Society of International Law held a series of annual conferences on Grotius since 1999.

Born in 1583, Hugo de Groot is a prodigy child. Hugo was the first child of Jan de Groot and Alida van Overschie. His father was a man of learning, once having studied with the eminent Justus Lipsius at Leiden, as well as of political distinction, and he groomed his son from an early age in a traditional humanist and Aristotelian education. A prodigious learner, Hugo entered the University of Leiden when he was just eleven years old. There he studied with some of the most acclaimed intellectuals in northern Europe, including Franciscus Junius, Joseph Justus Scaliger, and Rudolph Snellius. At thirteen he began publishing the work of latin encyclopedist Martianus Capella with the help of his master Joseph Juste Scaliger (published in 1599, this edition, enriched by a commentary, will remain a reference for several centuries).
Upon graduation from Leiden in 1598, Grotius was invited to accompany the influential Dutch statesman, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt on a diplomatic mission to France. When the fifteen-year-old Grotius was brought into an audience with King Henry IV, his impressive learning so delighted the court that the king declared "Behold the miracle of Holland!". Grotius mingled with a variety of noted intellects while in France, and before he returned to his home country, the University of Orleans conferred upon him an honorary Doctor of Laws.
In Holland, Grotius earned an appointment as advocate to The Hague in 1599 and then as official historiographer for the States of Holland in 1601. In 1959 and wrote a history of Netherlands rebellion against Spain “Annals and historiae de rebus belgicis”. At the request of the Dutch East Indies Company, seeking to establish her legal right to capture enemy ships, Grotius writes “De jure praedae - The right to take” - in 1606.
His first occasion to write systematically on issues of international justice came in 1604, when he became involved in the legal proceedings following the seizure by Dutch merchants of a Portuguese carrack and its cargo in the Strait of Singapore.

Grotius takes a decisive part in political-religious conflict between the supporters of General state of the Netherlands to the supporters of Maurice of Nassau. Grotius supported Oldenbarnevelt and the General States of Netherlands in their conflict with the Stadholder, Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, son of William I of Orange-Nassau. He was arrested by Mauritius on August 29, 1618, at the same time as Johan van Oldenbarnevelt during the Synod of Dordrecht. Van Oldenbarnevelt was executed, and Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in the castle of Loevestein. In 1621, he escaped the castle in a box of books, and fled to Paris, where he remained until 1644 as a resident of Sweden. He was shipwrecked off on his return of a mission in Sweden and died in Rostock on August 28, 1645.

In the Netherlands, he is best known for his escape. The Rijksmuseum, in Amsterdam and the Het Prinsenhof Museum, in Delft are both claiming the original box of books in their collections.

Grotius lived at the time of the Eoghty Years War between Spain and the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War between Catholic European nations and Protestant ones, it is not surprising that he has been deeply marked by questions of conflicts between nations and religions. He was himself moderate Calvinist and maintained extensive contacts with Catholics, hoping reunification of the Christian churches. In 1625, he published his book “De jure belli ac pacis” (On the laws of war and peace) where he presented his theory of fair war and claimed that all nations are bound by the principles of natural law.
In his book Mare Liberum (Free Seas) he formulated the new principle that the sea was an international territory and that all nations were free to use it for the maritime trade. Grotius, proclaiming the 'open seas', provides an ideological justification that suited the failure by the Dutch different commercial monopolies through their formidable naval power (and thus establishing their own monopoly).

England, large commercial rival of Holland, opposed this idea and proclaimed sovereignty over the seas around the British Isles. The dispute would later have significant economic impact. The Dutch Republic supported the idea of free trade (even if it imposed a Special monopoly trade on nutmeg and cloves in the Maluku archipelago). The England adopted the Navigation law (1651), prohibiting all goods entering England on non- English boats. The law eventually led to the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652 - 1654).

"A perfect body free of people who have joined together to peacefully enjoy their rights and for their common good" is the definition of State under Grotius. He based his argument on the existence of an original contract in which men have renounced the state of nature. He says that laws are to the State what the soul is to the human body. The state looks like a multitude of creatures reasonably United for things they love, it has the function to ensure the respect of the laws and organize the courts who have to give back what is owed to foreigners as well as individuals in the country. The territory is not an element of the state, but the fundamental contract that binds individuals to the state prohibits the sale of a province without the consent of the populations concerned.

The natural law is composed of principles of right reason that make us know that "an action is morally honest or dishonest according to the convenience or inconvenience necessary for it with a reasonable and sociable nature of man." The will of God is for him an indirect manifestation in the standard production, the latter coming out mostly of human nature. The natural law is immutable, common to all eras and all regions. It governs the conduct of individuals and state, the latter being bound by domestic obligations, of which the violation involves a right of resistance to oppression in favor of his subjects and by international obligations - that of the right of people. The exercise of sovereign rights of the State at the international level includes the right of war framed by standards that do only fair wars.

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