I.Q. of Famous People


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Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

Born: 1646
Died: 1716
Nationality: Germany
Description: philospher / scientist / lawyer
IQ: 205
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (Leipzig, 1 July 1646 - Hanover, 14 November 1716) is a philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian and German lawyer who wrote in Latin, French and German.

His mother died when he was 6 and he was raised by his father, a professor of moral philosophy at the University of Leipzig. He taught him to read, but Leibniz, precocious child, said he learned Latin by himself. In 1663, he obtained his Bachelor of ancient philosophy then entered the Law University of Leipzig. In 1666, he got his PhD in Law at Nuremberg and refuses shortly after a place as professor. He is affiliated to a society of the Rose Cross, of which he will be secretary for two years.

In 1669 he became adviser to the Chancellery of Mainz, with Baron Johann Christian von Boyneburg. He then worked on several books on political issues (Demonstrations of political models for the election of the king of Poland) or scientific (New Physical Hypothesis, 1671).

He is sent in 1672 in Paris, on a diplomatic mission, to convince Louis XIV of directing his conquests to Egypt rather than Germany. He stayed there until 1676 and met the great scientists of the time: Huygens and Malebranche, among others. He dedicated himslef to mathematics and leaves in Paris his manuscript on the squaring arithmetic of the circle. He was also working on what will be the infinitesimal calculus. He designs in 1673 a calculating machine that can perform four operations, and inspire many calculators of the nineteenth and twentieth century (Thomas de Colmar, Curta). Before joining Hanover, he went to London to study some writings of Isaac Newton, casting, both the basis for the differential and integral calculus. He also passes by The Hague where he met Baruch Spinoza.

In 1676, the death of his patron, Baron von Boyneburg, the Duke of Brunswick appointed him Librarian of Hanover. He remains to this position in the service of the Dukes of Hanover for almost 40 years. He is also involved in mathematics, physics, religion and diplomacy. In 1684, he published in Acta Eruditorum his article on the differential in 1686 and one on the integral. According to Leibniz's notebooks, a critical breakthrough occurred on November 11, 1675, when he employed integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the function y = x. He introduced several notations used to this day, for instance the integral sign ∫ representing an elongated S, from the Latin word summa and the d used for differentials, from the Latin word differentia. In 1686, he published in French his Speeches on Metaphysics. In 1687, he embarked on “A History Of The House Of Brunswick”, for which he travels around Italy in search of documentation. In 1691, he published in Paris in the Journal of Scientists, the Essay of Dynamics that defines the energy and the action. In 1700, he founded an academy in Berlin which will be inaugurated in 1711. In 1710, he published his “Essays of Theodice, results of discussions with the philosopher Pierre Bayle”.

Recognized as the greatest intellectual in Europe, and supported by several large courtyards (Pierre Le Grand in Russia, Charles VI in Austria that makes Baron), he died on November 14, 1716.

As a philosopher, he looked in the scholastic and the syllogistique. He designed the project to an encyclopedia or "universal library":

"It is important to the happiness of mankind that an encyclopaedia is created, ie an orderly collection of truths being enough, as far as possible, for the deduction of all useful things. "Initia and specimina scientiae generalis, 1679-1680.
As mathematician, he brought science in the new era of analysis of integral-differential.

    
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