George Sand (Amantinr Aurore Lucile Dupin)
George Sand was a French romantic writer. George Sand is the pseudonym of Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin, who would later become baroness of Dudevant.|
She was born in Paris in 1804 and died in Nohant (in the centre of France, south of Paris) in 1876.
She wrote novels, short stories, tales, theatre plays, one autobiography and literature critics and political texts.
She liked to talk about herself as if she was a man. She sometimes pretended to be and tried to enter in places reserved for men, like libraries, museums. She could do that because she used to dress as man and act like one. She would smokes cigars, have many lovers. Some people even assumed that she tried to really become a man, but deep inside, she was fighting against the female stereotype so that they would have the same freedom as men.
George Sand was not the first female writer nor the first to use a male pseudonym in France but was one of the first French to live her writings. Using a male pseudonym, she wanted to be the equal of men. She wanted to be judged not as a woman, but on the basis of her talents.
George Sand was read by men and women. In her writings, she described the women as individuals, making her readers more confident in themselves, becaming an idol for all women.
Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin was born in Paris in 1804. She was known as George Sand. She was the daughter of Maurice Dupin and Sophie Victoire Delaborde. When she was 4 years old, her father died and she was raised by her grand-mother, the daughter of the marshal of Saxe. She was raised in the countryside, on the family domain of Nohant, she received a double education: aristocratic and the one of the countryside. She learned Latin and sciences, as well as pastoral life. At 13, she was in a convent in Paris. There, in 1821, she meets the baron Casimir Dudevant, that she will marry in September 1822. The couple will have a son, and in 1828, despite their disagreement, they will have a daughter.
When she started having an affair with the writer Jules Sandeau in 1830, she decided, with the agreement of her husband, to go back to Paris, and abruptly decides to change her life.
In 1831, she started her career as a writer for a newspaper, The Figaro, employed by Henry de Latouche that she met in Paris. With her lover, Jules Sandeau, she writes a few articles under the pseudonym of J. Sand. She will adopt later, for the texts she wrote on her own, the name of George Sand (in French Georges is usually written with an S, notice that George Sand removed the S at the end of the name).
In Paris, she meets writer such as Honoré de Balzac, Henri Monnier and the critic, Jules Janin. She then wrote a novel, Rose and Blanche, with the collaboration of Jules Sandeau, that will be published under the name J. Sand, J referring to Jules.
In May 1832, she published her first novel, Indiana, a story inspired by her love stories about a woman loved by three men. The book was this time signed by her as George Sand. The same year, she published Valentine, dealing again with a woman, that will be admired by Chateaubriand, another famous French writer of the time.
She is then directly noticed by the harder critics of the time and is called to collaborate in “ La Revue des Deux Mondes”, that will pay her 4000 francs a year against 32 pages a week.
In 1833, George Sand published Lélia, a feminist novel, which caused great controversy. His denunciation of marriage led the columnist Capo of Feuillide in literary Europe to write that you would need to use a "coal burning" to purify the lips after reading this work. In July 1833, after her break with Jules Sandeau (Honoré de Balzac, who has dedicated his memoirs of two newlyweds, tells their story in The Muse of the department), started her legendary affair with Alfred de Musset.
In December, in Italy where the couple was on holidays, in Venice, they went through a major crisis. Sand falls in love with Pagello, the doctor of Alfred de Musset who chases girls. When the lack of money arises, she writes for the Journal des Deux Mondes the Letters of a passenger. This rough relationship only finds an end in May 1835. The Intimate Secretary (1834) opens the series of Venetian novels (Léoni Leone, 1834; Jacques, 1834) where, like their author, the heroes live passionate adventures. Since then, George Sand is considered by critics and conservative as a pernicious author.
In April 1835, George Sand Meets the Republican lawyer Michel de Bourges, who will initiate her to socialist ideas. Their liaison, very stormy too, lasts until 1837. Under the influence of her lover, she meets the main conspirators of the time (such Félicité de Lamennais and Pierre Leroux). As of June 1838, her liaison with Frédéric Chopin began. In 1841, she founded with Pierre Leroux and scholar Louis Viardot the Independent Journal, which published several of her stories. She released, among others, Consuelo followed by the Countess of Rudolstadt (1842-1844). These two novels get a huge success. Starting a new scheme, George Sand opts for the format of a river- like- novel in which she introduces ideas that, over the past five or six years, had been nourishing her mysticism: the theme of reincarnation of the human soul in 'Humanity future, the role played by revealing major heresies, the one also played by sects in the preparation of the French Revolution, and finally the rehabilitation of Satan, regarded as the instigator of the carnal life.
In 1844, the Constitutional publishes Jeanne, a novel whose namesake character is inspired the peasant, one of these human beings who have a pure and primitive soul and with which George Sand would like to repopulate the world. This novel opens the pastoral series of her works, written between 1845 and 1847: Meunier of Angibault (1845), Mr Sin Antoine (1845), the devil Mare (1846), François le Champi (1847-1848). The pastoral environment is represented as an ideal society that hasn’t been damaged by the perversion of values; by brushing a picture of a threatened world, she wants to show the nobility and even the greatness of this social class, in opposition to authors who, like Honoré de Balzac, paint peasants as coarse beings, devoid of sensitivity. During the Revolution of 1848, she took position alongside Ledru-Rollin. Her commitment gives rise to a series of passionate writings. On March 3, in the Letter to the middle class, she invited her countrymen to unite and love each other "to find the socialist truth ". On 12 March, in her Letter to the rich, she explains that "France [is] to be called Communist before a century has passed." Hosted by the same spirit, she wrote nine of sixteen issues of the Bulletin of the Republic and founded her own newspaper, the People's Cause, which shall not exceed three numbers. The crash by Eugene Louis Cavaignac of the popular riots made her cry: "I am ashamed to be French today… I do not believe anymore in the existence of a republic which begins to murder her proletarians”. She left Paris in fear of being arrested and revealed in the Petite Fadette the extent of her political disappointment. To the sterile and deadly ambitions of the city, politics and the revolution itself, George Sand opposed the poetry of the campaign. Critics and public welcome with sympathy this "disengaged” literature.
Financial problems forced George Sand to write for the theatre. While more than 20 of her plays are assembled at the Odeon theatre and the gymnasium, the scene of Nohant, created by Frédéric Chopin, provided a scene since 1851, that works as a field of experiments where the "Sand" and their friends and even the most gifted of their domestic attempt to split. Meanwhile, she began to write her own biography, which appeared under the title Story of my life (1854-1855). This masterpiece, which devotes a final figure of the literary woman was followed by many attacks. But the brothers Goncourt see it as "admirable paintings, priceless information on the formation of a writer's imagination, portraits of striking characters." The death of Alfred de Musset (1857) inspires her for a plea titled Her and Him (1859), causing a new scandal.
Her autobiographical works and correspondence are still, nowadays, particularly popular and appreciated by specialsts. In her latest novels, she forgives the bourgeoisie, even the aristocracy, raised under softened traits, but is targeting the Church, against whom she directs most of its moves (Fine Gentlemen Bois-plated, 1856-1858; Jean de la Roche, 1860; Miss the Quintinie, 1863). On 15 December 1863, the Holy Office is to index all of her work. George Sand makes no party during the Commune and dies in full operation, when she became a reassuring figure of the Republic.