Kimovitch Garry Kasparov
|Description: Chess player
Kimovitch Garry Kasparov (13 April 1963 in Baku, USSR (now in Azerbaijan) -) was until 2005 a chess player, regarded by many as the best player of all time. He earned the highest Elo rank ever recorded, being as a matter of fact, the first player to exceed 2 800 points. He is nicknamed the "ogre of Baku" and "the monster with a hundred eyes that sees everything." He is also politically active and shows his opposition to Vladimir Poutine.|
Garik Kimovitch Weinstein was born of a Jewish father, Kim Moiseyevitch Weinstein died in 1970, and a mother of Armenian origin, Klara Chagenovna Kasparian. He then takes the name of his mother giving it a Russian sound and becomes Garry Kasparov.
He has three children: Polina (born in 1993 of his first wife, Macha), Vadim (born in 1997, of his second wife Julia) and Aida (born 2006, of his third wife Dacha).
In 1973, recommended by Alexander Nikitin, he entered the Botvinnik school, the best chess training school of USSR. He follows the course of Mikhail Botvinnik, a former world champion, Nikitin, and Mark Dvoretsky, a specialist of the last minutes of the game. Other teachers have contributed to his training as Alexandre Ivanovich Chakarov, among others in the field of openings. Over the years, when he prepared himself for the World Championship, he will be assisted by a team of assistants as Iossif Dorfman, Zurab Azmaiparashvili, Sergey Dolmatov, Evgeny Vladimirov and Yuri Dokoyan.
In 1979, at age 16 and still unknown in the West, he unexpectedly won his first major international tournament of great masters in Banja Luka in Yugoslavia, finishing unbeaten at 11.5 / 15 before famous names such as Tigran Petrosian, András Adorján, Jan Smejkal and Ulf Andersson.
In 1980, he won the junior world championship and won the title of International Grand Master, the following year he won the prestigious championship of the USSR. In 1982, he is the winner of the international tournament of Bugojno and the interzonal of Moscow and thus enters the cycle of candidates for the World Championships. In this cycle, he eliminates successively Alexander Beliavsky (4 -1 = 4), Viktor Korchnoi (4 -1 = 6) and Vassily Smyslov (+4 = 9).
He plays his first final of the World Championships in Moscow in 1984 against Anatoly Karpov, the world champion title since 1975. After 5 months and 48 parties, none of the players managing to obtain the necessary 6 victories, this interminable game is finally interrupted by the International Chess Federation (ICF) to preserve the health of players. This interruption is criticized by Kasparov when he was lead 5-3 after being lead 5-0. The subsequent editions provide a maximum of 24 parties.
In 1985, during his second match against Karpov, he became world champion at age 22 on the score of 13-11 (+5 = 16 -3). He kept the title, always against Karpov in 1986 in London and Leningrad (5 = 15 -4), 1987 in Seville (+4 = 16 -4), and in 1990 in New York and Lyon (+4 = 15 -- 3).
In September 1993, Kasparov wins over Nigel Short by the score of 12.5-7.5 (6 = 13 -1) under a World Championship organized by the PCA, an organization not recognized by the ICF , Which earned him a temporary exclusion.
In 1995, he retained the title when he beat Indian Viswanathan Anand at the World Trade Center in New York (4 = 13 -1).
From June to October 1999, he played a part via the Internet against the rest of the world, the pace of one move a day. He was playing against 50 000 players from 75 countries, advised by four professional players, including Etienne Bacrot. He wins in 62 strokes.
In July 1999, Kasparov reached the highest Elo rating of all time with 2 851 points. Regardless of the title of world champion, he remained No. 1 in the global Elo ranking of the ICF from 1984 until his retirement in 2006, representing over 20 consecutive years, sharing only the first place with Vladimir Kramnik in the ranking of January 1996.
After announcing a match against Anand in 1999, it is finally against Kramnik that he defends his title in 2000 in London. Unexpectedly, he loses (-2 = 13).
He multiplies the victories in the tournament, despite a few negative performance in 2004.
On 11 March 2005, after winning the prestigious Linares tournament for the ninth time in his career, he announced he was withdrawing from the world of professional chess. He was removed from the Elo rankings in April 2006 as a result of inactivity over a year, as required by the regulation of the ICF.
Kasparov has also written several chess books including “And The Bishop Became King” (1987) and “About My Great Predecessors”, 5 tomes.
In 1986, he believes that the interests of professional players are not defended within the ICF, and then creates, with Bessel Kok, an association of professional players of high level, the GMA (Grand Master Association), which will organize prestigious competitions such as the tournaments of the World Cup. The internal dissension within the association and the creation of the PCA will result in the “death” of the GMA.
In 1993, he founded the PCA (Professional Chess Association) with the winner of the ICF tournament candidates, the Briton Nigel Short. In September, the PCA in London organizes a world championship so-called "classical" in claiming the tradition begun by Wilhelm Steinitz.
The ICF does not recognize this game and considers that both players excluded themselves from the cycle, and organizes a match between Anatoly Karpov and Jan Timman for the title of ICF World Champion. This is the beginning of a schism which lasted until 2006. Kasparov admitted later that this separation from the ICF was a serious mistake.
The ICF will briefly exclude Kasparov and Short of the Elo ranking in retaliation but reinstated them before the end of the year.
Due to the withdrawal of the main sponsors of the PCA in 1996 (Intel), the organization's World Championship will be transferred to the ephemeral World Chess Council in 1998, the rights are then sold to a private organization, Brain Games Network in 2000, then bought in 2002 by Einstein Group and finally transferred to Dannemann in 2004.
In 1998, Alexei Shirov beat Vladimir Kramnik in a match of 10 games (+2 = 7), but Kasparov said it was not possible to find a sponsor for a match against Shirov, and after announcing a match against Anand in 1999, it is finally against Kramnik that he defends his title in 2000 in London.
Between 2000 and 2005, various attempts to reunify the world title (the most serious is the agreement of Prague in 2002) or organise a retaliation match against Kramnik fail.
In 1989, Kasparov easily defeated Deep Thought, a supercomputer specialized in chess and capable of calculating 720 000 moves per second, with the score of 2-0 without appeal.
In February 1996, he faces Deep Blue, developed by Feng-hsiung Hsu for IBM in six parts, loses the first part of the game, but then won three and cancels the others.
In May 1997 he lost the retaliation match against Deeper Blue, it is the first time a computer officially beat a world champion on a singular match with a normal pace of competition. Deeper Blue was capable of calculating 100 million to 300 million moves per second, defeated Kasparov 3.5 to 2.5 in a game of 6 parts.
In January 2003, he faces Deep Junior, a program that runs on a microcomputer multiprocessor, in a championship match of the World man-machine under the auspices of the ICF, with a cash prize of 1 million USD , the match resulting in a draw 3-3 (1 -1 = 4)
In November 2003, he plays a match against four-part program X3D Fritz, whose rank is estimated at 2,807, using a virtual chessboard, stereoscopic glasses and a system of speech recognition. The match ended again by a draw (+1 -1 = 2) and Kasparov wins the award of USD 175 000.
In 1987, he was elected to the Komsomol, youth organisation of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He left the party in 1990, supports Boris Yeltsin on behalf of the Democratic Party of Russia, and is decorated with the Keeper of the Flame award, awarded by the think-tank Center for Security Policy, circles close to U.S. neoconservatives. He maintained links with think-tanks in the same obedience, as the Hudson Institute.
Kasparov is pursuing a political career in Russia. Founder of the Civic United Front, he is one of the leaders of The Other Russia movement, a coalition of opponents of Vladimir Poutine. He was briefly questioned in particular during a protest movement in Moscow on April 14, 2007. He was arrested again on November 24, 2007 during a protest in Moscow against the holding on 2 December 2007 of Russian parliamentary elections he considers "unjust", and sentenced to immediate five days of 'imprisonment for unauthorized demonstration and refusal to obey orders of the police. His lawyer, Me Mikhaďlova said she had filed a complaint against this arbitrary arrest. "Our goal is the dismantling of the regime which covers the countries of shame and hate (...) We are going out of this swamp of corruption and lies and we will win! ", said Garry Kasparov to the crowd shortly before his arrest.
Since his political commitment opposing himself to the president, Garry Kasparov said he was worried for his life. For example, he permanently has five bodyguards and does not travel woth any other airline than Aeroflot.
Kasparov is also one of the defenders of the New Chronology of the Russian Academician, Anatoly Fomenko.
On 30 September 2007 he was designated as the candidate of the opposition movement The Other Russia for the presidential elections in Russia in 2008. On 12 December 2007, he announced his withdrawal from the race for the presidency, he is the victim of ostracism.
On 18 January 2008, Kasparov published in Le Monde an article in which he harshly criticized the complacency of Nicolas Sarkozy towards Vladimir Poutine and the dangers that he thinks this represents.