I.Q. of Famous People

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Carl von Linn

Born: 1707
Died: 1778
Nationality: Sweden
Description: Botanist
IQ: 165
Born in 1707, died in 1778, Carl Linnaeus also known as Carl Von Linné, Swedish scientist, was made famous by the reform he introduced in the naming and classification of living beings. His positions are at the crossroads of science and philosophy.

Linné, son of a Swedish pastor without fortune, hasan austere and studious youth. He studied medicine and botany (which is at the time a branch of medicine). In 1732, the Society of Sciences in Uppsala sends on an expedition to Lapland, where he discovered with amazement an unknown flora. Shortly after his return in Sweden he left for the Netherlands where he acquires a Ph.D in medicine.

As soon as 1735, in Leyden, he started to publishe a short pamphlet outlining his method of classifying plants, animals and minerals which he published in his Systema naturae. He walks in the footsteps of the English naturalist John Ray and the french Sebastien Vaillant, but goes beyond them. Since the sixteenth century, naturalists have indeed added together and piled a lot of information and the need to order them becomes a necessity. Linné wants to reorganize this knowledge in a specific order. To develop his system of classification, he is inspired by John Ray, a botanist from the late seventeenth century and his definition of the concept of species: "groupe of individuals who create, by reproducing, other individuals similar to themselves. "

The ambition of Linnaeus is to impose a rational and universal descriptive system, valid for plants as well as animals and minerals. He takes, as determining criteria, the sexual characteristics. Sebastien Vaillant, french botanist, located reproductive organs in the body of the flower; Linné, sheltering behind many literary precautions, places them in the stamens and pistils, comparing the chalice to a nuptial bed and Corolla to a discreet curtain (Philosophia Botanica, 1751). He noted the number, the figure, the proportion and position of stamens and group plants in twenty-four classes, which he divided into orders following a rigorous analysis of the combination of stamens and pistils. He determines the kind by the single observation of stamens and endows and gives a name and a surname to each species . He invents a genuine international language naming plants, it will extend to animals - a dual system, consisting of name of the genus and the one of the species, derived from the latin or the vernacular latinized form, or the latinized name of the discoverer. Through this system, any plant or animal met can be identified . The hunt for specimens grows. Linné sends his own students and staff at the four corners of the world, in areas still unexplored by naturalists, sometimes at the cost of their lives. There is a real fever of the inventory. Each shipping takes its naturalist and illustrator.

Despite some resistance, the classification of Linné represents a model for generations of naturalists; even the staff of Buffon, his most fierce opponent, will eventually accept him. But based on a certainty: the fixity of species ( "we now expect as many species that was originally created" was the credo of Linnaeus, faithful to the biblical myth of creation), this taxicomie will not resist the theories of transformisme and evolution. However, his naming system is still in use.

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