I.Q. of Famous People

RANDOM QUOTE: "BROADBAND -- An all girl musical group." --- Wacky Definitions

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

Born: 1769
Died: 1821
Nationality: France
Description: Emperor
IQ: 145
Napoleon, born Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), general and French statesman , First Consul (1800-1804) and then the French emperor (1804-1815).
Military Engineer and enlightened despot, Napoleon has institutionalized many reforms developed during the French Revolution, conquered practically the whole of Europe and contributed to the modernization of nations he has dominated. Living myth (criticized or adored), figure in the history of France, this character with an exceptional destiny is intertwined with Europe's history the he has shaped into an empire: the First Empire.

Born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, a year after the purchase of Corsica by Louis XV to the Republic of Genoa, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is the second son of Carlo Maria Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramonilo. Born into a family of thirteen children (eight reach adulthood), he belongs to the small Corsican nobility of Genoese origin: his father, a lawyer, fought for the independence of Corsica against the royal troops alongside Pasquale Paoli. Turbulent child , quarrelsome and proud, "Corsican in character and of nation," he is raised in resentment towards France.

To reward the Corsican nobility that joined France, the king grants scholarships to children of former paolistes. Napoleon and his brother Joseph then leave to study in college Autun (1778). The following year, Napoleon was admitted to the Military School of Brienne (1779-1784), then at the Royal Military School of Paris. In 1785, at the age of sixteen, he is received as a second lieutenant in the artillery and assigned to garrison in Valencia. The same year, the death of his father forces him to defend the family interests and to sacrifice his pay for the upkeep of his brothers and sisters. Gifted in mathematics, he does not less devour treaties on military art, reads philosophers (especially Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire) and major political thinkers (including Mirabeau and Necker). His fierce and rude nature makes him insociable, rebellious, wild and silent with his classmates in a metropolis where he felt for a long time abroad.

Bonaparte enthusiastic about the Revolution, especially since the revolutionary movement can serve its ambitions: the abolition of privileges, the night of August 4, 1789, cancels the decree confining small noble in the rank of the lower part of the army, wide opening the doors of a military career for Napoleon. But as a first step, his ambitions are focused solely on his island homeland. To escape the boredom of appointments from garrison to garrison (Lyon 1786, Douai 1787, Auxonne 1788, Valencia 1791), he often stays in Corsica and takes part in the political struggles of the island. He first commands a battalion of volunteers and fights against the troops of the king.

Reinstated nevertheless in the royal army and appointed captain, he soon resumed the fight as a lieutenant-colonel of the National Guard of Ajaccio and then faces the paolistes seeking to establish the independence of the island with the support of England. In June 1793, when declaring the independence of Corsica, the "traitor", took refuge with his family in Marseilles and aligns himself definitively to France and the republic.

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