I.Q. of Famous People

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Bill (William) Jefferson Clinton

Born: 1946
Died: -
Nationality: USA
Description: President
IQ: 137
Clinton, Bill (1946 -), U.S. politician, 42nd President of USA (1993-2001).

Born in Hope (Arkansas), William Jefferson Blythe IV, said Bill Clinton, was from a modest environment and grew up in a difficult family context . His father, William Jefferson Blythe III, died in a car accident three months before his birth. His mother, Virginia Cassidy, married Roger Clinton four years later.

At fifteen, Bill opts legally for the name of Clinton. He pursues brilliant studies at Georgetown University, at Oxford University and the Faculty of Law at Yale University where he graduated in 1973. Meanwhile, he launched himself into politics and takes part in the unfortunate presidential campaign of Democrat George Mc Govern in 1972. The early years of this baby-boomer are marked by his participation in the mobilization against the war of Vietnam and the liberalization of morals.

In 1974, he refused offers of large legal firms on the East Coast to teach law at the University of Arkansas. He married the following year a distinguished lawyer, Hillary Rodham, and the couple gives birth to a daughter, Chelsea, in 1980. Elected general attorney (Minister of Justice) of Arkansas as soon as 1976, he successfully organizies the presidential campaign of Democrat candidate for the presidency, Jimmy Carter.

In 1978, Bill Clinton became the youngest governor of the USA, at 32 years old only. Bearer of a reformist program that will provide him with the votes of the middle class, he is re-elected governor of Arkansas without interruption since 1982, and may be proud of the modernization and industrialization of his home state that he may countas one of his success. In 1992, he announced his candidacy for the presidency of the USA under the label of the Democratic Party, forming a ticket with Senator Al Gore of Tennessee.

Faced with the outgoing Republican President George Bush, Bill Clinton advocated an economic strategy based on participation of the state in the economic and social life, reducing the national debt and tax reform. He was elected in November 1992 with 43 p. 100 of the votes (against respectively 38 and 19 p. 100 p. 100 for George Bush and Texas billionaire Ross Perrot) and became the first Democrat to win a presidential election since 1976. Invested in January 1993, he implements an ambitious five-year programme intended to increase the funds devoted to education, vocational training and public works, reduce federal spending, particularly on defence, and increase revenues, partly thanks to a very large tax on energy. From the beginning of his mandate, he also called his wife and adviser to head a team to carry out the reform of health and widespread social protection to the entire population. He also plans to abolish the measure prohibiting the inclusion of homosexuals in the military, but faces opposition from the military hierarchy. It exerts on the other hand, a significant pressure on Congress so that it works in favour of the legislation against crime, and that legislates against possession of firearms.

Democratic moderate, pragmatic, reformist but not "liberal" (the liberals form the left wing of the Democratic Party), Bill Clinton is essentially, during the first months of his mandate, consacrating time to the internal problems on which he campaigned ( "America first "), as opposed to a George Bush labelled as a president too focused on international politics; he met and implemented many reforms (minorities, education, etc.). in a particularly favorable economic environment, including since late 1994.

Bill Clinton is actively committed to the ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the USA, Mexico and Canada. In February 1996, he announced the end of the trade embargo on Vietnam, in force since nineteen years. The Clinton administration gets mixed results in foreign policy: positive with the peace process in Israel and the Middle East, controversial during the civil war in Bosnia and rather negative in regard to military action in Somalia. Although often criticized for his indecision, Bill Clinton, effectively assisted by his Secretary of State Warren Christopher, gets some important diplomatic success and continues to impose the idea of a Pax Americana to solve many armed conflicts throughout the world. The Republican victory in the House of Representatives and the Senate in 1994 forces Bill Clinton to deal with a Congress hostile to his policies, particularly in regard to public expenditure. The Clinton administration is also criticized for seeking to stifle the liabilities of the presidential couple in the so-called Whitewater affair, real estate scandal occurred in the years 1980 in Arkansas.

Bill Clinton was re-elected in November 1996 with 49 p. 100 of the votes against the Republican candidate Bob Dole. He appears as the first Democrat to be elected for two consecutive presidential mandates since F. D. Roosevelt. The first two years of his second term are marked by an accumulation of scandals sufficiently publicized to directly threaten a possible new Watergate - even if his popularity never seemed threatened. Bill Clinton is thus confronted with controversial concerning the financing of his electoral campaign that, as the rumor says, would have been payed by pressure groups in Asia - including Indonesian and Chinese - who have sought to influence the foreign policy of the White House. Thereafter, the revelations of Paula Jones, who accuses the president of sexual harassment, then those relating to Monica Lewinski, suspected of false testimony about a possible relationship with him, severely destabilize the president.

However, the strong economic growth, the success on the diplomatic level - with NATO enlargement in 1997 - the role played by Bill Clinton in signing a peace agreement in Northern Ireland in April 1998 and the American firmness concerning Iraq, allow the president to resist these attacks. His successes, however, know their limits in the Middle East where, facing a congressional majority in favour of Israel, Bill Clinton is powerless to revive the peace process, and in Asia where he is unable to prevent India, then Pakistan , to conduct nuclear tests. In June 1998 an official visit to China allows him to criticize publicly the 1989 crackdown (Tian'anmen), to directly talk and communicate with the Chinese, to plead for respect of human rights and for a democratic opening. At the same time, he reaffirms that Taiwan is not intended to independence.

In terms of interior politics, focusing on reforming the welfare state and social protection system, Bill Clinton gets the support of Republicans and seeks to strengthen the focus of his party toward the middle classes.

Bill Clinton also managed to lay the groundwork for a large market comprising the entire American continent and ends the trade war with the European Union, the House of Representatives, however, refuses to let him use the fast-track, parliamentary procedure allowing the president to seek congressional approval on global trade agreements without discussing specific clauses.

During 1998 and until February 1999, Bill Clinton faces the Lewinsky affair. Accused by the prosecutor Kenneth Starr of subornation of witnesses and obstruction of justice after his sworn testimony in the Paula Jones case, on the sexual relations he would have had with an intern at the White House, Monica Lewinsky, he is sued in the U.S. Congress. Based on the Starr report, the House of Representatives vote an investigation that could lead to the impeachment of the president. The results of the legislative elections in November 1998, while reflecting the public support for a president enjoying strong economic performance, do not prevent the vote of his indictment by the House in December 1998 and the transmission of the file to the Senate for confirmation. Open January 14, 1999, the trial ends on February 12 by his acquittal.

The last years of the second term of Bill Clinton is distinguished by his will to make his mark and his legacy in the field of foreign policy. In December 1998, during the Lewinsky affair, he launched, with Britain, the operation "Desert Fox" against Iraq with the aim of forcing Saddam Hussein to accept the supervision of disarmament by the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM). On 24 March 1999, regarding Kosovo, he urged USA successfully , along with thirteen of nineteen members of NATO in the Operation "Allied Force" against Yugoslavia. However his efforts to relaunch the peace process in the Middle East, resulting in the signing of a memorandum between Benjamin Netanyahu and Yasser Arafat at the Wye Plantation summit (October 1998) then resulted in the failure of the negotiations of " the last chance "at the summit in Camp David II (July 2000). Finally, in November 2000, he makes an official visit to Vietnam - the most symbolic of his ending mandate- in the company of his wife and daughter. First U.S. president to visit this country since the war ended, he makes a decisive contribution to the reconciliation process between the USA and Vietnam.

The record of Bill Clinton is, however, marred by the defeat of his vice-president, Al Gore, in the election in November 2000. In January 2001, it is the Republican George W. Bush who succeeded Bill Clinton as head of the USA.

Far from withdrawing from public life, Bill Clinton directs his activities to humanitarian aid. At the end of his mandate, he created a foundation destined to fight against AIDS, the Clinton Foundation. In February 2005 he was appointed special envoy of UN General-Secretary, Kofi Annan, for regions affected by the tsunami of 26 December 2004. "Giving: how each of us can change the world" (2007), is a book of testimony and and a political essay, appears as an assessment of his philanthropy and as a manifesto in favour of giving and volunteering. He is also the author of When history and hope meet, Getting Ready for the twenty-first century (1996) and memoirs, entitled My Life (2004).

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